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Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية
al-Jamāhīrīyah al-'Arabīyah al-Lībīyah ash-Sha'bīyah al-Ishtirākīyah
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى
al-Jamāhīrīyah al-'Arabīyah al-Lībīyah ash-Sha'bīyah al-Ishtirākīyah al-'Uẓmá
|Motto: وحدة ، حرية ، اشتراكية|
Waḥdah, Ḥurrīyah, Ishtirākīyah
("Unity, Freedom, Socialism")
|Anthem: الله أكبر|
("God is Great")
|Government||Unitary non-partisan Islamic socialist Jamahiriya|
Guide of the
|Secretary-General of the General People's Congress (head of state and head of legislature)|
• 1977–1979 (first)
• 2010–2011 (last)
|Mohamed Abu al-Qasim al-Zwai|
|Secretary-General of the General People's Committee (head of government)|
• 1977–1979 (first)
|Abdul Ati al-Obeidi|
• 2006–2011 (last)
|Legislature||General People's Congress|
|Historical era||Cold War · War on Terror · Arab Spring|
|2 March 1977|
|15 February 2011|
|28 August 2011|
|20 October 2011|
|1,759,541 km2 (679,363 sq mi) (16th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2007 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2009)|| 0.847|
|Currency||Libyan dinar (LYD)|
|ISO 3166 code||LY|
The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Arabic: الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية al-Jamāhīrīyah al-'Arabīyah al-Lībīyah ash-Sha'bīyah al-Ishtirākīyah) was a socialist country in North Africa that was replaced by the present State of Libya. On 2 March 1977, the General People's Congress (GPC), at Muammar Gaddafi's behest, adopted the "Declaration of the Establishment of the People's Authority" and proclaimed the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Arabic: الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية). In the official political philosophy of Gaddafi's state, the "Jamahiriya" system was unique to the country, although it was presented as the materialization of the Third International Theory, proposed by Gaddafi to be applied to the entire Third World. The GPC also created the General Secretariat of the GPC, comprising the remaining members of the defunct Revolutionary Command Council, with Gaddafi as general secretary, and also appointed the General People's Committee, which replaced the Council of Ministers, its members now called secretaries rather than ministers.
The Libyan government claimed that the Jamahiriya was a direct democracy without any political parties, governed by its populace through local popular councils and communes (named Basic People's Congresses). Official rhetoric disdained the idea of a nation state, tribal bonds remaining primary, even within the ranks of the national army.
The word "Jamahiriya" (Arabic: جماهيرية jamāhīriyyah, approximately "[state] of the masses") is an Arabic neologism. It is the feminine nisba adjective formed from the term "Jamahir" (masses). It echoes the Arabic term for "Republic", "Jumhuriyah" (formally the feminine nisba adjective from Jumhur "people"). They both come from the root J-M-H.
Gaddafi's "Jamahiriya" form of government was supposed to be different from both the monarchy and the republic, hence the name of "Third" International Theory.
- "Libya crisis: Col Gaddafi vows to fight a 'long war'". BBC News. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- "L'Aménagement Linguistique dans le Monde - Libye". Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "Human Development Report 2009" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 January 2014.
- "Human Development Report 2009" (PDF). hdr.undp.org.
- Geographical Names, "اَلْجَمَاهِيرِيَّة اَلْعَرَبِيَّة اَللِّيبِيَّة اَلشَّعْبِيَّة اَلإِشْتِرَاكِيَّة: Libya" Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Geographic.org. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- General People's Congress declaration (2 March 1977) at EMERglobal Lex Archived 19 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine for the Edinburgh Middle East Report. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- "ICL - Libya - Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- Protesters Die as Crackdown in Libya Intensifies Archived 6 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 20 February 2011; accessed 20 February 2011.